Ahead of Monday’s showdown with France, the Queens Park Rangers midfielder said players overlooked by Roy Hodgson in lieu of his Liverpool counterpart would feel “aggrieved”.
Henderson, who turns 22 later this month, struggled in his debut season at Anfield, following a £16m move from boyhood club Sunderland but was called up by Hodgson due to injury to Frank Lampard.
Six Liverpool players now form the core of the Three Lions squad, with defender Martin Kelly drafted in to replace Gary Cahill, and Barton believes players should be picked on form.
“On ability I walk in the squad, on behaviour I don’t,” Barton wrote on Twitter. “If Henderson got in, any Englishman not currently in the squad has to feel aggrieved. Yes, I wish I was there but I’m not.
“Everyones thinking it [but] I’ll say it. Liverpool have [had an] horrific season and have six players in our Euro squad. What chance do we have? Pick on form.
“How [Grant] Holt, [Micah] Richards, [Michael] Carrick, [Rio] Ferdinand, [Leon] Osman, [Daniel] Sturridge etc never got involved is a travesty. I really hope England do well and win it, I really do. All am saying is a don’t think we will and it p***es me off.
“If everyone stays fit, we’ve got a decent 11 once [Wayne] Rooney’s back. If any of the key players get a knock, we are done for. Three games in eight/nine days takes its toll on the body.
“If a few are carrying injuries from a long domestic season, it will show. Not being pessimistic just a realist. I am over qualified to pass judgement on this. Not only have a played in the Premier League for 10 years but I’ve played with and against most of them.”
MORE: Man United latest news
MORE: Arsenal latest news
MORE: Chelsea latest news
MORE: Liverpool latest news