The Reds signed the England international from Queens Park Rangers until the end of the season earlier this month.
Caulker was on loan at Southampton earlier this season but the deal was cut short in order to allow Liverpool to sign the former Tottenham man.
Klopp, who replaced Brendan Rodgers in October, has been without regular centre-halves Martin Skrtel, Mamadou Sakho and Dejan Lovren due to injury during various points of his Anfield reign.
Speaking on BT Sport, Owen questioned why Liverpool signed a defender with a poor record in the Premier League and the Championship in recent seasons.
“It is strange. You’d have thought there is someone in the academy who could do a job,” Owen told BT Sport.
Caulker played a role in Adam Lallana’s winner at Carrow Road on Saturday afternoon as scramble in the Norwich area resulted in the midfielder’s late strike.
Liverpool are in seventh place in the Premier League table after their 5-4 victory at the Canaries.
MORE: Latest Man Utd news
MORE: Latest Arsenal news
MORE: The latest football news