The visitors got off to a perfect start when Simon Katich was run out and Ricky Ponting was dismissed first ball.
Anderson then removed Michael Clarke before Michael Hussey (93) and Shane Watson (51) led an Australia fight back. A 50 late in the day from Brad Haddin rescued some respectability as the tail folded to an impressive bowling display.
England struck twice in the first over to have the Aussie reeling on a seemingly flat Adelaide wicket. Jonathan Trott gathered and steadied to run out Katich without facing, as the opening pair misjudged a quick single.
Ricky Ponting then edged Anderson to Graeme Swann as England erupted into uncontrollable euphoria. The slight away movement proved too much for the Australian captain who trudged off for a golden duck.
Anderson was soon at it again, this time it was Clarke who fell to the swinging ball. The late movement took ClarkeÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s edge as he drove weakly off-balance and Swann made no mistake with his diving effort at second slip.
Hussey escaped a number of appeals and an England review as he and Watson steadied AustraliaÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s nervy start. Watson brought up his 50 on the stroke of lunch with Australia 94-3 at the break.
Watson continued his poor conversion rate after the break as he spliced a drive to Kevin Pietersen at backward point. With Watson playing aggressively on the front foot, Strauss employed more fielders square of the wicket – a move which eventually paid off.
An out-of-form Marcus North began patiently and rebuilt with Hussey after the early loss of Watson. Hussey, on the back of his runs in Brisbane, soon passed the 50 mark as he continues to repay the selectorsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ faith.
Things were looking solid for Australia until North inexplicably attempted a late cut off Steven Finn. He could only edge the delivery as the sides stopped for tea with the hosts 159-5.
Hussey and Haddin enjoyed a record 307 partnership at the Gabba however Swann ensured there was no repeat performance. He teased Hussey into another drive but the spin was too much and Paul Collingwood snaffled the chance at slip to rob the left hander of another 100, out for 93.
Swann then struck straight after when Ryan Harris fell lbw for the second golden duck of the Australian innings. The dismissal triggered Haddin to play more expansively and he began to find the rope with consistently.
Another running mix up gifted England their eighth wicket as Strauss and Alastair CookÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s relay throwing saw the end of Xavier Doherty.
Haddin passed 50 with an exceptional hook shot for six but his joy was short lived as Peter Siddle clipped to Cook at mid wicket – Anderson claiming his fourth wicket.
The last man to fall was Haddin, caught in the deep by Finn to seal an incredible day for the tourists.
There was even time for one over of EnglandÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s reply which was negotiated without alarm, closing on 1-0.
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