Team-mate Jenson Button will start alongside him, making it the 62nd front-row lock-out for McLaren – a new all-time record.
Having won last week’s United States Grand Prix, Hamilton out-drove the rest of the field with a lap of 1 minute 12.458 seconds, finishing one tenth in front of his fellow British driver.
It was a scrappy qualifying session from championship contenders Sebastian Vettel (fourth) and Fernando Alonso (eighth) as both were out-qualified by their team-mates.
“It’s been a good weekend so far,” said Hamilton. “I’m grateful to be able to put the car on the front row and to be able to have my last one-two qualifying with Jenson.”
“Just a fantastic job by the team. I’m so grateful for all the opportunities they have given me. I hope we can turn it into something really positive tomorrow.”
“I think the weather is going to be tricky tomorrow so it’s definitely going to make it more of a lottery.”
“I think we’ve put ourselves in a really good position and we’re just going to do the best job we can from there.”
“We’ll work together as a team and this is the best we have been for some time so we’ll make sure we do absolutely everything to get the top result.”
Mark Webber qualified third, with current championship leader Vettel making it a second-row grid lock-out for Red Bull.
Meanwhile, Ferrari’s Felipe Massa will begin just behind in fifth, outstripping his team-mate Alonso by three places.
The Spaniard, who has to finish on the podium tomorrow to have any chance of picking up his third driver’s championship, will start behind Williams’ Pastor Maldonado and Force India’s Nico Hulkenberg in eighth.
Ferrari will be relying on fifth-placed Massa to help his team-mate compete for the title tomorrow.
Both Massa and Alonso had a nervy Q2 as the two Ferraris struggled to show pace and only just scrapped through into the top 10 shoot-off.
After 21 years of racing, Michael Schumacher will begin his last race as an F1 driver from 14th position on the grid.
For the first time in his career, Romain Grosjean was knocked out in Q1. The Frenchman will start from 18th position after clipping the back of Pedro de la Rosa’s HRT on the final corner and damaging his front wing.
Pastor Maldonado may be given a penalty after he drove through the red light at the entry to the pit lane. An FIA official was pointing towards the weigh bride area, but the Venezuelan just drove straight on.
As it stands, Vettel is leading the drivers’ championship by 13 points. Alonso has to finish on the podium to stand any chance of beating the German and that could be tricky from eighth position.
Vettel will win his third straight world crown with anything better than a fifth-place finish at Interlagos.
However, the Spaniard has shown some impressive race driving all season and it is bound to go to the end of the race.
With two very fast McLarens on the front of the grid and changing climate conditions, anything could happen.
The season will no doubt end in high drama tomorrow at the final Grand Prix of the year.
1. Lewis Hamilton (Gbr) McLaren 1:12.458
2. Jenson Button (Gbr) McLaren 1:12.513
3. Mark Webber (Aus) Red Bull 1:12.581
4. Sebastian Vettel (Ger) 1:12.760
5. Felipe Massa (Bra) Ferrari 1:12.987
6. Pastor Maldonado (Ven) Williams 1:13.176
7. Nico Hulkenberg (Ger) Force India 1:13.206
8. Fernando Alonso (Spa) Ferrari 1:13.252
9. Kimi Raikkonen (Fin) Lotus 1:13.298
10. Nico Rosberg (Ger) Mercedes 1:13.489
11. Paul di Resta (Gbr) Force India 1:14.121
12. Bruno Senna (Bra) Williams 1:14.219
13. Sergio Perez (Mex) Sauber 1:14.234
14. Michael Schumacher (Ger) Mercedes 1:14.334
15. Kamui Kobayashi (Jpn) Sauber 1:14.380
16. Daniel Ricciardo (Aus) Scuderia Toro Rosso 1:14.574
17. Jean-Eric Vergne (Fra) Scuderia Toro Rosso 1:14.619
18. Romain Grosjean (Fra) Lotus 1:16.967
19. Vitaly Petrov (Rus) Caterham 1:17.073
20: Heikki Kovalainen (Fin) Caterham 1:17.086
21. Timo Glock (Ger) Marussia 1:17.508
22. Charles Pic (Fra) Marussia 1:18.104
23. Narain Karthikeyan (Ind) HRT-F1 1:19.576
24. Pedro de la Rosa (Spa) HRT-F1 1:19.699
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BIOGRAPHY: Ethan Hazard
BIOGRAPHY: Daniel Sturridge