England reached 426 in their innings largely thanks to centuries from captain Alastair Cook, who scored 119, and Patel.
The Nottinghamshire all-rounder, 27, increased his chances of being selected ahead of Eoin Morgan and Jonny Bairstow for the first Test with his performance.
“I thought he was outstanding in this game, showed great temperament and just looked calm and controlled,” said Anderson to Sky Sports.
“He played at his own tempo – Cooky at the other end, playing at his, which is very different to Samit’s – and I thought they complemented each other very well.
“He’s a very good all-round player. He plays spin very well. He was very controlled and composed out there, and that’s what you need in these conditions.”
Patel exhibited his bowling talents too by recording match figures of 36 overs costing 135 runs – taking two wickets in the process.
The captains shook hands with India A on 124-4 in their second innings in the three-day match.
England will have two more practice games to decide their best line-up for the first Test on 15 November.
One player who can be certain of this place is Kevin Pietersen, and Anderson believes England can now put the summer’s saga between the controversial batsman and the ECB behind them.
“All the stuff that’s gone on, it’s all well and good saying ‘we’re going to draw a line under it’,” said Anderson, who took four wickets in the match.
“But I think that’s actually happened, and it just seems to be back to normal in the dressing room and on the field.”
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BIOGRAPHY: Marcus Rashford